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PUBLISHED RESEARCH 2006


Multilineage differentiation potential of stem cells derived from human dental pulp after cryopreservation.
Zhang W, Walboomers XF, Shi S, Fan M, Jansen JA.
Tissue Eng
2006 Oct;12(10):2813-23
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The current study aimed to prove that human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) isolated from the pulp of third molars can show multilineage differentiation after cryopreservation. First, hDPSC were isolated via enzymatic procedures, and frozen in liquid nitrogen until use. After defrosting, cells were analyzed for proliferative potential and the expression of the stem cell marker STRO-1. Subsequently, cells were cultured in neurogenic, osteogenic/odontogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic inductive media, and analyzed on basis of morphology, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for specific marker genes. All data were replicated, and the results of the primary cells were compared to similar tests with an additional primary dental pulp stem cell strain, obtained from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Results showed that our cell population could be maintained for at least 25 passages. The existence of stem/ progenitor cells in both cell strains was proven by the STRO-1 staining. Under the influence of the 5 different media, both cell strains were capable to advance into all 5 differentiation pathways. Still differences between both strains were found. In general, our primary culture performed better in myogenic differentiation, while the externally obtained cells were superior in the odontogenic/osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation pathways. In conclusion, the pulp tissue of the third molar may serve as a suitable source of multipotent stem cells for future tissue engineering strategies and cell-based therapies, even after cryopreservation.


Isolation and characterization of a population of immature dental pulp stem cells expressing OCT-4 and other embryonic stem cell markers.
Kerkis I, Kerkis A, Dozortsev D, Stukart-Parsons GC, Gomes Massironi SM, Pereira LV, Caplan AI, Cerruti HF.
Cells Tissues Organs
2006;184(3-4):105-16
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We report the isolation of a population of immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSC), which express embryonic stem cell markers Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 as well as several other mesenchymal stem cell markers during at least 25 passages while maintaining the normal karyotype and the rate of expansion characteristic of stem cells. The expression of these markers was maintained in subclones obtained from these cells. Moreover, in vitrothese cells can be induced to undergo uniform differentiation into smooth and skeletal muscles, neurons, cartilage, and bone under chemically defined culture conditions. After in vivo transplantation of these cells into immunocompromised mice, they showed dense engraftment in various tissues. The relative ease of recovery and the expression profiles of various markers justify further exploration of IDPSC for clinical therapy. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Stem cells in dental practice: perspectives in conservative pulp therapies.
Casagrande L, Mattuella LG, de Araujo FB, Eduardo J.
J Clin Pediatr Dent
2006 Fall;31(1):25-7
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Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capacity to self-renew. They have been discovered in many adult tissues, including teeth. The Dental Pulp Stem Cells are involved in dentinal repair by activation of growth factors, released after caries process and have the ability to regenerate the dentin-pulp-like complex. The molecular/cellular research raises the possibilities to grow new tissues and biological structures for clinical application, providing cells for therapies including cell transplantation and tissue engineering.


Regenerative dental medicine: stem cells and tissue engineering in dentistry.
Reed JA, Patarca R.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol
2006;25(3):537-69
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The dawn of this century is brightened by the growing understanding and experimentation with stem cells as primary tools in the expanding regenerative medicine and tissue engineering revolution. The tradition of using prosthetic artificial implants to restore lost or damaged dental tissue will gradually be supplanted by more natural alternatives, including biological tooth replacement or induction. The practice of dentistry is likely to be revolutionized by biological therapies based on growth and differentiation factors that accelerate and/or induce a natural biological regeneration. This prospect has flourished from the gained knowledge provided by the molecular biological characterization of the genetic makeup of human cells and from a growing understanding of the effect of environmental factors. Prevention of dental diseases will also gain new ground as more insight is gained into the genetic makeup of microbial pathogens, their interactions with the host, and the host repair mechanisms. This review summarizes current knowledge, barriers, and challenges in the clinical use of stem cells with an emphasis on applications in dentistry.


Craniofacial tissue engineering by stem cells.
Mao JJ, Giannobile WV, Helms JA, Hollister SJ, Krebsbach PH, Longaker MT, Shi S.
J Dent Res
2006 Nov;85(11):966-79
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Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Virtually all craniofacial structures are derivatives of mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are the offspring of mesenchymal cells following asymmetrical division, and reside in various craniofacial structures in the adult. Cells with characteristics of adult stem cells have been isolated from the dental pulp, the deciduous tooth, and the periodontium. Several craniofacial structures--such as the mandibular condyle, calvarial bone, cranial suture, and subcutaneous adipose tissue--have been engineered from mesenchymal stem cells, growth factor, and/or gene therapy approaches. As a departure from the reliance of current clinical practice on durable materials such as amalgam, composites, and metallic alloys, biological therapies utilize mesenchymal stem cells, delivered or internally recruited, to generate craniofacial structures in temporary scaffolding biomaterials. Craniofacial tissue engineering is likely to be realized in the foreseeable future, and represents an opportunity that dentistry cannot afford to miss.


Formation of odontoblast-like cells from cultured human dental pulp cells on dentin in vitro.
Huang GT, Shagramanova K, Chan SW.
J Endod
2006 Nov;32(11):1066-73
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Recent characterization of human dental pulp stem cells has shed new light on the understanding of the odontoblastic lineage. The purpose of the study was to characterize human adult dental pulp cells isolated and cultured in vitro and to examine the cell differentiation potential grown on dentin. We observed that some pulp cells isolated with an enzyme-digestion approach proliferated at a similar rate as the immortal cell line NIH 3T3. Population doubling time (PDt) for pulp cells at passage 3 was 22.6 +/- 0.5 hours and for NIH 3T3 was 23.1 +/- 2.3 hours. The pulp cells formed mineral nodules stimulated with dexamethasone or dexamethasone plus 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Pulp cells, after being seeded onto mechanically and chemically treated dentin surface, appeared to establish an odontoblast-like morphology with a cytoplasmic process extending into a dentinal tubule revealed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Our data demonstrated the formation of cells with odontoblastic morphologies on existing dentin, suggesting that isolated human pulp stem cells may differentiate into odontoblasts on dentin in vitro.


Stem cell properties of human periodontal ligament cells.
Nagatomo K, Komaki M, Sekiya I, Sakaguchi Y, Noguchi K, Oda S, Muneta T, Ishikawa I.
J Periodontal Res
2006 Aug;41(4):303-10
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stem cells have been used for regenerative therapies in various fields. The proportion of cells that possess stem cell properties in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is not yet well understood. In this study, we quantitatively characterized human PDL cells to clarify their stem cell properties, including self-renewal, multipotency, and stem cell marker expression.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: PDL cells were obtained from extracted premolar or wisdom teeth, following which a proliferation assay for self-renewal, a differentiation assay for multipotency, immunostaining for STRO-1, and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis for stem cell markers (including CD105, CD166, and STRO-1) were performed.
RESULTS: Approximately 30% of 400 PDL cells were found to possess replicative potential and formed single-cell colonies, and 30% of these colonies displayed positive staining for STRO-1, 20% differentiated into adipocytes and 30% differentiated into osteoblasts. FACS analysis revealed that PDL cells, including cell populations, expressed the stem cell markers CD105, CD166, and STRO-1.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicated that PDL cells possess crucial stem cell properties, such as self-renewal and multipotency, and express the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD105, CD166, and STRO-1 on their cell surface, although there were some variations. Thus, PDL cells can be used for periodontal regenerative procedures.


Long-term cryopreservation of dental pulp stem cells (SBP-DPSCs) and their differentiated osteoblasts: a cell source for tissue repair.
Papaccio G, Graziano A, d'Aquino R, Graziano MF, Pirozzi G, Menditti D, De Rosa A, Carinci F, Laino G.
J Cell Physiol
2006 Aug;208(2):319-25
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It is not known whether cells derived from stem cells retain their differentiation and morpho-functional properties after long-term cryopreservation. This information is of importance to evaluate their potential for long-term storage with a view to subsequent use in therapy. Here, we describe the morpho-functional properties of dental pulp stem cells (SBP-DPSCs), and of their differentiated osteoblasts, recovered after long-term cryopreservation. After storage for 2 years, we found that stem cells are still capable of differentiation, and that their differentiated cytotypes proliferate and produce woven bone tissue. In addition, cells still express all their respective surface antigens, confirming cellular integrity. In particular, SBP-DPSCs differentiated into pre-osteoblasts, showing diffuse positivity for ALP, BAP, RUNX-2, and calcein. Recovered osteoblasts expressed bone-specific markers and were easily recognizable ultrastructurally, with no alterations observed at this level. In addition, after in vivo transplantation, woven bone converted into a 3D lamellar bone type. Therefore, dental pulp stem cells and their osteoblast-derived cells can be long-term cryopreserved and may prove to be attractive for clinical applications.


Cluster analysis and gene expression profiles: a cDNA microarray system-based comparison between human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for tissue engineering cell therapy.
Yamada Y, Fujimoto A, Ito A, Yoshimi R, Ueda M.
Biomaterials
2006 Jul;27(20):3766-81
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We investigated gene expression patterns and functional classifications regarding the clusters of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)--which possess a multipotent ability--because little is known about the precise moleculobiological clues by which these cells activate their differentiating ability or functionality to eventually form dentin and bone, respectively. We first verified the expressions of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene, dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1), and dentinsialophosphoprotein (DSPP) by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and consequently discovered the high expressions of these genes. Total RNA was also followed by hybridization with a human microarray system consisting of 12,814 genes. Analyses of gene expression patterns indicated several genes which encode extracellular matrix components, cell adhesion molecules, growth factors, and transcription regulators. Functional and clustering analyses of differences in gene expression levels revealed cell signaling, cell communication, or cell metabolism. In the future, information on the gene expression patterns of hDPSCs and hMSCs might be useful in determining the detailed functional roles of the relevant genes and applicable to stem cell therapies, and these cells could also be used as multipotent cell sources for gene technology and tissue engineering technology.


A review of new developments in tissue engineering therapy for periodontitis.
Nakahara T.
Dent Clin North Am
2006 Apr;50(2):265-76, ix-x
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This article focuses on recent advances in the regeneration of periodontium using tissue engineering and examines new technologies that will lead to further advances in periodontal therapy. The various advantages and drawbacks of protein-based, cell-based, and genetic-engineering approaches are evaluated. The debate between those who aim to regenerate periodontal tissues and researchers who have focused on the reconstitution of structural elements of the teeth is examined. The isolation of human dental stem cells from deciduous and adult wisdom teeth might hold the key to allowing the replacement of teeth and the regeneration of supporting tissue. The combination of scientific research, following on from advances in other fields, with clinical research in dentistry could yield a solution to the debilitating and widespread problem of periodontitis.


Human dental pulp cell culture and cell transplantation with an alginate scaffold.
Kumabe S, Nakatsuka M, Kim GS, Jue SS, Aikawa F, Shin JW, Iwai Y.
Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn
2006 Feb;82(4):147-55
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Many studies on tissue stem cells have been conducted in the field of regenerative medicine, and some studies have indicated that cultured dental pulp mesenchymal cells secrete dentin matrix. In the present study we used alginate as a scaffold to transplant subcultured human dental pulp cells subcutaneously into the backs of nude mice. We found that when beta-glycerophosphate was added to the culture medium, dentin sialophosphoprotein mRNA coding dentin sialoprotein (DSP) was expressed. An increase in alkaline phosphatase, which is an early marker for odontoblast differentiation, was also demonstrated. At 6 weeks after implantation the subcutaneous formation of radio-opaque calcified bodies was observed in situ. Immunohistochemical and fine structure studies identified expression of type I collagen, type III collagen, and DSP in the mineralizing transplants. Isolated odontoblast-like cells initiated dentin-like hard tissue formation and scattered autolyzing apoptotic cells were also observed in the transplants. The study showed that subcultured dental pulp cells actively differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and induce calcification in an alginate scaffold.


Gene expression of runx2, Osterix, c-fos, DLX-3, DLX-5, and MSX-2 in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation in vitro.
Morsczeck C.
Calcif Tissue Int
2006 Feb;78(2):98-102
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Recently, osteogenic precursor cells were isolated from human dental follicles, which differentiate into cementoblast- or osteoblast- like cells under in vitro conditions. However, mechanisms for osteogenic differentiation are not known in detail. Dental follicle cell long-term cultures supplemented with dexamethasone or with insulin resulted in mineralized nodules, whereas no mineralization or alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in the control culture without an osteogenic stimulus. A real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was developed to investigate gene expression during osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Expression of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene was detected during differentiation in the control culture and was similar to that in cultures with dexamethasone and insulin. DLX-3, DLX-5, runx2, and MSX-2 are differentially expressed during osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In dental follicle cells, gene expression of runx2, DLX-5, and MSX-2 was unaffected during osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Osteogenic differentiation appeared to be independent of MSX-2 expression; the same was true of runx2 and DLX-5, which were protagonists of osteogenic differentiation and osteocalcin promoter activity in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Like in bone marrow-derived stem cells, DLX-3 gene expression was increased in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation but similar to control cultures. However, gene expression of osterix was not detected in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation; this gene is expressed during osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow stem cells. These real-time PCR results display molecular mechanisms in dental follicle precursor cells during osteogenic differentiation that are different from those in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.



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